Training an apprentice to become a journeyman requires the appropriate technology, Trained Journeymen, and $500 and 5 pieces of paper. It is a good investment if you can keep up the supply of cigars; but a better option, if you can manage it, is to promote him further.
Training a journeyman to become a Master (having productivity 8) requires the appropriate technology, Master Artisans, and $1,000 and 10 pieces of paper. It is a good investment if you can keep up the supply of fur. There is not much fur in the Imperialism 2 world. It is found in only a few provinces near the North Pole and the South Pole.